Multicultural Health

Multicultural Health Second Edition

Lois A. Ritter, EdD, MS, MA, MS-HCA, PMP

Consultant, Health and Education

Donald H. Graham, JD, MA Attorney and Consultant, Human Services

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Ritter, Lois A., author. | Graham, Donald H., author. Title: Multicultural health / Lois A. Ritter, Donald H. Graham. Description: Second edition. | Burlington, MA : Jones & Bartlett Learning, [2017] |

Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2015048787 | ISBN 9781284021028 (pbk. : alk. paper) Subjects: | MESH: Cultural Competency | Culturally Competent Care | Cross-

Cultural Comparison | Ethnic Groups | United States Classification: LCC RA418.5.T73 | NLM W 21 | DDC 362.1089—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015048787

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Printed in the United States of America 20 19 18 17 16 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

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http://lccn.loc.gov/2015048787
CONTENTS

Dedication

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Authors

UNIT I The Foundations

Chapter 1 Introduction to Multicultural Health Key Concepts and Terms Diversity Within the United States Cultural Adaptation Health Disparities Causes of Health Disparities Legal Protections for Ethnic Minorities Personal Health Decisions Ethical Considerations Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 2 Theories and Models Related to Multicultural Health Theories of Health and Illness Pathways to Care Cultural Competence

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Promoting Cultural Competence Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 3 Worldview and Health Decisions Worldview Worldview and Medical Decisions Worldview and Response to Illness Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 4 Complementary and Alternative Medicine History of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and Alternative Health Care Modalities Laws Affecting Cultural Practices and Health Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 5 Religion, Rituals, and Health Religion in the United States Religion and Health Behaviors Religion and Health Outcomes Religion and Well-Being Rituals Summary Review

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Activity Case Study References

Chapter 6 Communication and Health Promotion in Diverse Societies Health Communication Delivering Your Health Message Printed Materials Public Health Programs Evaluating Your Multicultural Health Program Summary Review Activity Case Study References

UNIT II Specific Cultural Groups

Chapter 7 Hispanic and Latino American Populations Introduction Terminology History of Hispanics in the United States Hispanics in the United States General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance Healing Traditions, Healers, and Healing Aids Behavioral Risk Factors and Common Health Problems Considerations for Health Promotion and Program Planning Tips for Working With the Hispanic Population Summary Review Activity Case Study

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References

Chapter 8 American Indian and Alaskan Native Populations Introduction Terminology History of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States American Indian and Alaskan Native Populations in the United States American Indian and Alaskan Native General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance Healing Traditions, Healers, and Healing Aids Behavior Risk Factors and Prevalent Health Problems Considerations for Health Promotion and Program Planning Tips for Working With American Indian and Alaskan Native Populations Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 9 African American Populations Introduction Terminology History of African Americans in the United States African Americans in the United States General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance Healing Traditions Behavior Risk Factors and Prevalent Health Problems Considerations for Health Promotion and Program Planning

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Tips for Working With the African American Population Summary Review Activity Case Study References

Chapter 10 Asian American Populations Introduction Terminology History of Asian Americans in the United States Asian Americans in the United States General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance Healing Traditions, Healers, and Healing Aids Behavioral Risk Factors and Common Health Problems Considerations for Health Promotion and Program Planning Tips for Working With the Asian American Population Summary Review Activities Case Study References

Chapter 11 European and Mediterranean American Populations Introduction Terminology History of European and Mediterranean Americans in the United States European and Mediterranean Americans in the United States General Philosophy About Disease Prevention and Health Maintenance

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History, Healing Practices, and Risk Factors for Three Subcultures Behavior Risk Factors and Prevalent Health Problems for European and Mediterranean Americans Tips for Working With European and Mediterranean American Populations Summary Review Activity Case Studies References

Chapter 12 Nonethnic Cultures Introduction Introduction to the “Culture of People Suffering Discrimination” History of Gay Americans in the United States Introduction to People With Disabilities Introduction to the Culture of Commerce Consumers Farmworkers Introduction to People Who Are Recent Immigrants or Refugees Summary Review Activities Case Study References

UNIT III Looking Ahead

Chapter 13 Closing the Gap: Strategies for Eliminating Health Disparities Strategies for Reducing or Eliminating Health Disparities

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Summary Review Activities Case Study References

Glossary

Index

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Dedication

To Gary and Samantha, for creating countless hours of laughter—lr

To Sarah—dg

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Preface

Your mind is like a parachute . . . it functions only when open. ~ Author unknown

Health care professionals work in a diverse society that presents both opportunities and challenges, so being culturally competent is essential to their role. Although knowing about every culture is not possible, having an understanding of various cultures can improve effectiveness. Multicultural Health provides an introduction and overview to some of the major cultural variations related to health.

Throughout this text, those engaged in health care can acquire knowledge necessary to improve their effectiveness when working with diverse groups, regardless of the predominant culture of the community in which they live or work. The content of this book is useful when working in the field on both individual and community levels. It serves as a guide to the concepts and theories related to cultural issues in health and as a primer on health issues and practices…