intelligence and academic achievement

Post an explanation of the difference between intelligence and academic achievement. Then, select two influences: environmental and/or biological (you can select two of either category or one of each) that have been associated with intelligence and academic achievement. Briefly describe the two environmental and/or biological influences you selected. Explain the effects of each influence on intelligence and academic achievement. Be specific and provide examples. Use proper APA format and citations. about 250-300 words or so

****I have attached an article I would like for you to use for this as a reference please.*****
Intelligence New Findings and Theoretical Developments

Richard E. Nisbett University of Michigan Joshua Aronson and Clancy Blair New York University

William Dickens Northeastern University James Flynn University of Otago

Diane F. Halpern Claremont McKenna College Eric Turkheimer University of Virginia

We review new findings and new theoretical developments in the field of intelligence. New findings include the follow- ing: (a) Heritability of IQ varies significantly by social class. (b) Almost no genetic polymorphisms have been discovered that are consistently associated with variation in IQ in the normal range. (c) Much has been learned about the biological underpinnings of intelligence. (d) “Crystallized” and “fluid” IQ are quite different aspects of intelligence at both the behavioral and biological levels. (e) The importance of the environment for IQ is established by the 12-point to 18-point increase in IQ when children are adopted from working-class to middle-class homes. (f) Even when improvements in IQ produced by the most effective early childhood interventions fail to persist, there can be very marked effects on academic achievement and life outcomes. (g) In most developed countries studied, gains on IQ tests have continued, and they are beginning in the developing world. (h) Sex differences in aspects of intelligence are due partly to identifiable biological factors and partly to socialization factors. (i) The IQ gap between Blacks and Whites has been reduced by 0.33 SD in recent years. We report theorizing concerning (a) the relationship between working memory and intelligence, (b) the appar- ent contradiction between strong heritability effects on IQ and strong secular effects on IQ, (c) whether a general intelligence factor could arise from initially largely inde- pendent cognitive skills, (d) the relation between self-reg- ulation and cognitive skills, and (e) the effects of stress on intelligence.

Keywords: intelligence, fluid and crystallized intelligence, environmental and genetic influences, heritability, race and sex differences

In 1994, a controversial book about intelligence byRichard Herrnstein and Charles Murray called The BellCurve was published. The book argued that IQ tests are an accurate measure of intelligence; that IQ is a strong predictor of school and career achievement; that IQ is highly heritable; that IQ is little influenced by environmen- tal factors; that racial differences in IQ are likely due at least in part, and perhaps in large part, to genetics; that environmental effects of all kinds have only a modest effect on IQ; and that educational and other interventions have

little impact on IQ and little effect on racial differences in IQ. The authors were skeptical about the ability of public policy initiatives to have much impact on IQ or IQ-related outcomes.

The Bell Curve sold more than 300,000 copies and was given enormous attention by the press, which was largely uncritical of the methods and conclusions of the book. The Science Directorate of the American Psycholog- ical Association felt it was important to present the con- sensus of intelligence experts on the issues raised by the book, and to that end a group of experts representing a wide range of views was commissioned to produce a summary of facts that were widely agreed upon in the field and a survey of what the experts felt were important questions requiring further research. The leader of the group was Ulrich Neis- ser, and the article that was produced was critical of The Bell Curve in some important respects (Neisser et al., 1996). The article was also an excellent summary of what the great majority of experts believed to be the facts about intelligence at the time and important future directions for research.

Fifteen years after publication of the review by Neis- ser and colleagues (1996), a great many important new facts about intelligence have been discovered. It is our intent in this review to update the Neisser et al. article (which remains in many ways a good summary of the field

This article was published Online First January 2, 2012. Richard E. Nisbett, Institute for Social Research, University of Mich-

igan; Joshua Aronson and Clancy Blair, Department of Applied Psychol- ogy, New York University; William Dickens, Department of Economics, Northeastern University; James Flynn, Department of Psychology, Uni- versity of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Diane F. Halpern, Department of Psychology, Claremont McKenna College; Eric Turkheimer, Depart- ment of Psychology, University of Virginia.

The writing of this article and much of the research that went into it were supported by a generous grant from the Russell Sage Foundation, by National Institute on Aging Grant 1 R01 AG029509-01A2, and by Na- tional Science Foundation Grant 2007: BCS 0717982. The views pre- sented here are not necessarily those of the National Science Foundation.

We thank Angela Duckworth, Richard Haier, Susanne Jaeggi, John Jonides, Scott Kaufman, John Protzko, Carl Shulman, Robert Sternberg, and Oscar Ybarra for their critiques of an earlier version of this article.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Rich- ard E. Nisbett, Institute for Social Research, 3229 East Hall, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. E-mail:


130 February–March 2012 ● American Psychologist © 2012 American Psychological Association 0003-066X/12/$12.00

Vol. 67, No. 2, 130–159 DOI: 10.1037/a0026699


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