1. Joseph and Nancy Jabbra’s chapter “Administrative Culture in the Middle East” argues that 6 forces or factors have produced an administrative culture in the Middle East that makes it difficult to adopt Western management innovations, philosophies, and administrative approaches. Two of these forces are “over-centralization” and “administrative expansion.”Choose either one (1) of these two forces or factors and explain how and why it has contributed to an administrative culture that makes it difficult to introduce changes in the government of either Abu Dhabi or the UAE, particularly Western management innovations, philosophies and approaches. (Do not try to answer for more than one force or for both levels of government.)2. Which sources of power of lower participants in organizations have you personally experienced being used most often around you in healthcare organization? (as per David Mechanic’s) Which have been most effective? Why?3. Evan Berman identifies four major performance challenges – areas where there are opportunities for performance improvement:a. Better serving external stakeholders’ needs;b. Improving organizational effectiveness and using resources efficiently;c. Improving project management; andd. Increasing productivity through people.Describe how you might start a performance improvement project in your organization (healthcare organization) using any one of Berman’s performance challenges (and opportunities). Be as specific as possible. Explain the reasons for your most important strategy decisions.4. It has been said many times that groups are the greatest barriers a manager faces when trying to implementing organizational change. It has also been said that the only effective way to implement lasting change is through involving groups.a. Which of these statements is correct, or are they both correct? Why?b. What do you believe are the most important principles about groups for managers to keep in mind when trying to implement change in an organization in the Emirates?5. A survey by Kouses & Posner identified four characteristics or attributes that that people in several countries look for in a leader: honest, inspiring, forward-looking, and competent. Which one of these four characteristics do you believe is least important for an organizational leader in the Emirates to have? Why?